Category EOD/UXO

UN report confirms use of CW in Syria

A brief post to note that the UN report on the now-confirmed chemical weapons (CW) attacks on Ghouta has been released. It appears that many commentators and analysts, including myself, were correct in pointing to the unknown munition detailed in my previous posts as the probable delivery mechanism for CW agent in these attacks. The […]

[Arabic post] راجمات صواريخ إيرانية “فلق-2” يُعتقد أنها استُخدمت في الهجوم الكيماوي المزعوم في سوريا

This is a translation of an earlier post I wrote about alleged chemical warfare (CW) munitions and their delivery systems. It has been translated into Arabic, and is also available at Brown Moses Arabic. Important: this translation does not include later updates made to the piece, nor information from any previous or subsequent posts.  راجمات صواريخ […]

Submunitions in Syria: additions and updates

Following are two more safety sheets I produced for the RRMA, as part of a package provided to the United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS) to support their ongoing efforts in Syria. The content of these  is drawn largely from previous posts here. There are one-sheets for the ZAB-2.5 incendiary and Sakr Type B submunitions, as well […]

Sakr 122mm Cargo Rockets & Submunitions in Syria

Recently, Sakr 122mm cargo rockets and their submunitions have been observed within Syria. This family of 122mm rockets is designed for use with the Russian BM-21 multiple rocket launcher (the so-called ‘Grad’, or ‘hail’) and other 122mm systems such as the Chinese Type 81 SPRL and Egyptian RL-21 and RC-21 launch vehicles. These surface-to-surface multiple […]

Likely Evidence of White Phosphorus use in Syria

Whilst many observers and media sources have been mistaking ZAB-2.5 incendiary submunitions for white phosphorus (WP) munitions, it appears that one incident showcasing limited use of WP has gone largely overlooked. On the 13th of November, Israeli Defence Forces (IDF) Merkava Mark IV tanks engaged “Syrian mobile artillery units”, in response to mortar rounds fired […]

Differential Identification of White Phosphorus and ZAB submunitions in Syria

There have been a number of claims, both from the ground in Syria and from media abroad, that Syrian government forces have been using white phosphorus (WP) munitions to target rebel positions or civilian populations. Unfortunately, these reports appear to be confusing the appearance of ZAB series cluster bomb submunitions (likely ZAB-2.5 submunitions) with that […]

Update: Cluster Munitions in Syria (ZAB-2.5 incendiary submunitions)

RBK-250 cluster bombs, containing ZAB-2.5 submunitions, have recently been identified in Syria. There has been a lot of confusion surrounding both the cluster munitions themselves, and the submunitions, with contrasting and conflicting claims. First and foremost, it is important to note that the RBK-250 ZAB-2.5 250kg cluster bomb, as sighted in Syria, contains three different […]